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F1-管理学术语英汉对照解释(7)

Foundations of Planning
1、Planning : 计划工作
A process that involves defining the organization’s goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals , and developing a comprehensive set of plans to integrate and coordinate organizational work.
包含定义组织的目标,制定全局战略以实现目标,以及开发一组广泛的相关计划以整合和协调组织工作。
2、Goals: 目标
Desired outcomes for individuals , groups , or entire organizations.
个体、群体和整个组织期望的产出,它提供了所有管理决策的方向,构成了衡量标准,参照这种标准就可以度量实际工作的完成情况。
3、Plan : 计划
Documents that outline how goals are going to be met including resource allocations , schedules , and other necessary actions to accomplish the goals.
一种文件,它规定了怎么实现目标以及通常表述了资源的分配、进度以及其他实现目标的必要行动。
4、Stated goals : 陈述的目标
Official statements of what an organization says , and what it wants its various stakeholders to believe ,its goals are.
一个组织向外界宣称的和试图使各种利益相关者相信的正式的陈述。
5、Real goals : 真实目标
Goals that an organization actually pursues , as defined by the actions of its members .
一个组织真正追求的目标,以及组织成员正在做什么。
6、Strategic plan: 战略计划
Plans that apply to the entire organization, establish the organization’s overall goals, and seek to position the organization in terms of its environment.
应用于整体组织的计划,其任务在于建立组织的全局目标和寻求组织在环境中的定位。
7、Operational plans : 运营计划
Plans that specify details how the overall goals are to be achieved.
具体规定如何实现全局目标的细节计划。
8、Long-term plans : 长期计划
Plans with a time frame beyond three years.
超过3年的计划。
9、Short-term plans : 短期计划
Plans covering one year or less.
1年或短于1年期的计划。
10、Specific plans : 具体计划
Plans that are clearly defined and that leave no room for interpretation.
清晰定义的和没有任何解释余地的计划。
Plans that are flexible and that set out general guidelines.
一种具有灵活性的计划,它设立了一般的指导原则。
12、Single-use plan : 一次性计划
A one-time plan specifically designed to meet the needs of a unique situation .
指为满足特定情况需要而设计的一次性计划。
13、Standing plans : 持续性计划
Ongoing plans that provide guidance for activities performed repeatedly.
提供了对重复进行的活动的持续指导。
14、Traditional goal setting : 传统目标设立过程:
An approach to setting goals in which goals are set at the top lever of the organization and then broken down into subgoals for each lever of the organization .
首先设立组织的最高层目标,然后将其分解为每一个组织层次的目标。
15、Means-ends chain : 手段---目的链
An integrated network goals in which the accomplishment of goals at one level serves as the means for achieving the goals, or ends at the next level.
意味着上一层的目标或目的与下一层的目的相联系,后者成为实现上一层目标的手段。
16、Management by objectives : 目标管理
A management system in which specific performance goals are jointly determined by mployees and their managers, progress toward accomplishing those goals is periodically reviewed, and rewards are allocated on basis of this progress.
在这种管理体系下,雇员与他的管理者共同确定具体的绩效目标,然后定期的评审实现目标方面的进展情况。
17、Mission : 使命
The purpose of an organization.
就是组织的目的。
18、Commitment concept: 承诺概念
Plans should extend far enough to meet those commitments made when the plans were developed.
意味着计划应该扩展到未来足够长的期限,以满足这些承诺和投入的实现。
19、Formal planning department: 正式计划部门
A group of planning specialists whose sole responsibility is helping to write various organizational plans.
一组专职的计划专家负责制定各种各样的组织计划。
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