ACCA F8 考试：Control Activities
Control activities—the policies and procedures which help ensure that management directives are carried out and that actions are taken to address risks that threaten the achievement of the entity's objectives.
Types of control activities and examples include:*
reviews■Actual against budget, prior year and variance analysis.
■Analytical review, internal versus external data.
■Functional or activity performance in that activities which should have taken place actually took place.
processing■Accuracy, completeness and authorisation, for example:
□checking arithmetical accuracy （e.g. of documents, records）;
□maintaining and reviewing accounts and trial balances;
□carrying out reconciliations （e.g. bank, supplier statements）;
□sequence checks of pre-numbered documents （e.g. despatch notes）;
□completeness checks （e.g. that all documents have been processed）;
□follow-up of error reports （and taking appropriate action）;
□IT general and application controls
controls■Secured access to assets and records.
■Password access to computer systems.
■Comparing book to physical （e.g. inventory, petty cash, noncurrent assets）.
of duties■Separation of the authorising, recording and custody functions.
■Actions of one employee are checked by another.
Authorisation■Basically, "if it can move, authorise it", for example:
□purchase or disposal of non-current assets;
□new suppliers, supplier payments;
□purchase and sales invoices;
□new employees, wage rates, promotions;
□journal entries, bad debt write-offs.