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2016 CFA LEVEL 1 2 3 高清精华课程

F1-管理学术语英汉对照解释(4)

Managing in a global Environment
1、Parochialism : 狭隘主义
A narrow view of the world; an inability to recognize difference between people.
用狭隘的观点和视觉看世界,认识不到人们有着不同的生活和工作方式。
2、Ethnocentric attitude: 多国中心论
The parochialistic belief that the best work approaches and practices are those of the home country.
认为东道主的管理人员知道经营业务的最佳工作方式和惯例。
3、Polycentric attitude : 民族中心论
The view that the managers in the host country know the best work approaches and practices for running their business.
认为母国的工作方式和惯例是最好的。
4、Geocentric attitude : 全球中心论
A world- oriented view that focuses on using the best approaches and people from around the globe.
一种全球取向观点即在世界范围内选用最佳方式和最优秀的人才。
5、European Union (EU) : 欧盟
A union of European nations created as a unified economic and trade entity.
由15个欧洲国家组成的一个统一的经济贸易实体。
6、North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) : 北美自由贸易协定
An agreement among the Mexican, Canadian, and US. governments in which barriers to free trade have been eliminated.
由墨西哥,加拿大和美国政府就消除自由贸易壁垒所达成的协定。
7、Association of southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) : 东南亚国家联盟
A trading alliance of 10 Southeast Asian nations.
东南亚10国的贸易联盟。
8、Multinational corporation (MNC) : 多国公司
A company that maintains significant operations in multiple countries but manages them from a base in the home country.
在多个国家拥有重要的运营单位,但以母国为基地进行管理的组织。
9、Transnational corporation (TNC) : 跨国公司
A company that maintains significant operations in more than one country but decentralizes management to the local country.
在多个国家拥有重要的运营单位,并在从事经营的所在国分散管理的公司。
10、Borderless organization : 无国界组织
A global type of organization in which artificial geographical barriers are eliminated.
消除人为地理界限的一种全球性组织。
11、Exporting : 出口
An approach to going global that involves making products at home and selling them overseas.
在国内制造产品,并将产品销往国外。
12、Importing : 进口
An approach to going global by manufacturing organizations that involves giving other organizations the right to use your brand name, technology, or product specifications.
把海外制造的产品销往国外。
13、Licensing : 许可证贸易
An approach to going global by manufacturing organizations that involves giving other organizations the right to use your brand name, technology, or product specifications.
通过一次性支付或按销售提取一定费用,从而给予其他组织商标,技术或产品规范的制造业组织的使用权。
14、Franchising : 特许证贸易
An approach to going global by service organizations that involves giving other organizations the right to use your brand name ,technology ,or product specifications.
通过一次性支付或按销售提取一定费用,从而给予其他组织商标,技术或产品规范的服务业组织的使用权。
15、Strategic alliances : 战略同盟
An approach to going global that involves partnerships between an organization and a foreign company which both share resources and knowledge in developing new products or building production facilities.
是指一个组织与外国公司建立的伙伴关系,双方在开发新产品或组建生产机构时共享资源和知识。
16、Joint venture : 合资企业
An approach to going global that is a specific type of strategic alliance in which the partners agree to form a separate ,independent organization for some business purpose.
是一种特殊的战略同盟,即双方为了某个企业目标,一致同意成立一个自主经营,独立的组织。
17、Foreign subsidiary : 外国子公司
An approach to going global that involves a direct investment in a foreign country by setting up a separate and independent production facility or office.
在国外直接投资的一种自主经营而又独立的生产机构或办事处。
18、National culture : 民族文化
The values and attitudes shared by individuals from a specific country that shape their behavior and beliefs about what is important.
是指一个国家的居民共有的价值观,这些价值观塑造了他们的行为以及他们看待世界的方式。
19、Individualism : 个人主义
A cultural dimension that describes when people are supposed to look after their own interests and those of their immediate family.
人们只关心自己的和直系亲属的利益的一种文化维度。
20、Collectivism : 集体主义
A cultural dimension that describes when people expert others in their group to look after them and to protect them when they are in trouble .
人们希望群体中的其他人再他们有困难时帮助并保护他们的一种文化维度。
21、Power distance : 权利差距
A cultural measure of the extent to which a society accepts the unequal distribution of power in institutions and organizations.
衡量社会接受机构和组织内权利分配不平等的程度的尺度。
22、Uncertainty avoidance : 不确定性规避
A cultural measure of the degree to which people tolerate risk and unconventional behavior.
衡量人们承受风险和非传统行为的程度的文化尺度。
23、Quantity of life : 生活的数量
A national culture attribute describing the extent to which societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialism.
一种表现为过分自信以及追求金钱和物质财富的民族文化。
24、Quality of life : 生活的质量
A national culture attribute that reflects the emphasis and concern for others.
一种重视人与人之间的关系,并表现出对他人幸福的敏感和关心的民族文化。
25、Culture shock : 文化冲击
The feelings of confusion, disorientation ,and emotional upheaval caused by being immersed in a new culture.
处于一个新的文化时所产生的困惑,迷惘以及锯烈的情感波动的感觉。
26、Organizational socialization: 组织社会化
The process that employees go through to adapt to an organization′s culture.
是指雇员适应组织文化所经历的过程。
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