ACCA P3 考试：E-Marketing Characteristics
Dave Chaffey examines the difference between traditional and new marketing media in the context of "six Is":
5. Industry restructuring; and
6. Independence of location.
The Internet allows greater dialogue to develop between a company and its customers than in traditional print media.
Traditional print media use a push approach, in which the company initiates the dialogue (e.g. by placing an advert). The customer then responds but the overall dialogue is limited.
With the Internet, the customer may initiate the dialogue (e.g. by visiting a website or a company's page on a social media network). This enables companies to collect commercially valuable information from consumers (e.g. customers' opinions about its products).
The interactivity may not be between the customer and the company directly, but between the customer and the website or other medium.
The Internet provides organisations with a cost-effective way to collect marketing information. For example, online questionnaires can be used to find out what customers value and what areas need to be improved in a service.
Customers can be analysed based on information that they provide about themselves, and different marketing profiles can be identified. Recording every user’s clicks on links on a company's website can be useful in determining the tastes and preferences of different users.
Traditional marketing campaigns send the same message to all customers. The Internet allows marketing to be customised to the particular user. For example, Amazon records which books users buy, and when users subsequently revisit the website they are offered suggestions for other books that might interest them.
The Internet provides an additional tool for communicating the marketing message to the customers and can be used to complement other channels. Thus, the Internet must be integrated into the overall marketing media to supplement existing methods (e.g. phone, mail or in person).
Organisations may be interested in how the Internet can complement other channels for providing information to potential customers. They must also consider how the Internet can complement other channels for enabling customers to contact them.
Some organisations use the Internet to support a sale (e.g. by providing information about products and services on a website) but the sale itself may take place over the telephone (e.g. if customers are concerned about paying over the Web).
5. Industry Restructuring
An e-marketing strategy needs to consider the effect that the Internet has on intermediaries. A common change has been disintermediation (i.e. suppliers can sell directly to customers without going through a broker or agent). Airlines are a good example of this, as most airlines enable customers to buy tickets through their own websites rather than buying through travel agents.
A company's e-marketing department needs to consider the effect of such restructuring on the industry and decide which intermediaries should represent them.
6. Independence of Location
The Internet enables businesses to reach markets worldwide provided that the goods they sell can be transported easily. Many traditional retailers also sell their products by way of a website and deliver goods by mail or courier. This means that potential markets become much larger.
Traditionally, making sales in foreign markets is very difficult in countries where the seller does not have a local agent.