2.2 Criteria for Sustainable Development
Using or adapting existing facilities, rather than building "from scratch".
Environmentally friendly, in building and design.
Minimisation of adverse effects on nearby residents.
Protection of native vegetation (e.g. forests, wetlands, fauna).
Constructed on "brownfield sites" (i.e. those previously used as industrial/commercial sites)—leaving "greenfield" (i.e. undeveloped) land untouched.
Inclusion of effective public transport system for accessibility.
Minimisation of waste with recycling encouraged.
Minimisation of energy use (e.g. using solar power) and avoiding high energy usage systems (e.g. air conditioning).
Minimisation of water use (e.g. recycling of storm water and sewage for irrigation).
Inclusive benefit (i.e. across all communities including minorities, disabled groups, etc). Allowing low-income groups to benefit. Affordable housing for all.
Minimisation of pollution (or cleaning up if it exists).
2.3 Accounting for Sustainability*
The most recent development in thisarea is integrated reporting (see Section 4).
Examples of frameworks for sustainability reporting, include:
Triple Bottom Line reporting; and Balanced Scorecard methodologies.
2.3.1 Triple Bottom Line Reporting ("TBL" or "3BL")
The phrase was coined by John Elkington, co-founder of the business consultancy SustainAbility. It is an expanded baseline for measuring performance.
Triple Bottom Line accounting attempts to measure and report corporate performance against economic, social and environmental benchmarks in order to show improvement or to make more in-depth evaluation.*
It can be viewed as:
a reporting device (e.g. information presented in annual reports); and/or
an approach to improving decision-making and the activities of organisations (e.g. by providing tools and frameworks for considering the economic, environmental and social implications of decisions, products, operations and future plans).
Adding governance to the bottom line gives rise to the "Quadruple Bottom Line" approach.